Thus, our attempt to assess the microglial activity in the different groups based on the expression of ED1, a marker that is well described to only be found in activated cells, was not successful. RPE cells, together with retinal astrocytes and retinoblastoma cells are examples of cell-based assays, i. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 9: The retinal explants were cultured in serum-free conditions in R16 culture medium Invitrogen, Paisley, Scotland. The complex network of neuronal cells in the retina makes it a potential target of neuronal toxicity — a risk factor for visual loss. Conceived and designed the experiments:
Exposure to the 80 nm sized NPs rendered a more pronounced activation of GFAP compared to their smaller 20 nm-sized counterparts.
KFCRadio: Pimple Puke
Furthermore, the cultured post-natal rodent retina has proven very useful for studying microglia activation, with the classical hallmarks of inflammation maintained, including morphological changes, cytokine release and proliferation . Quantification of the fractions of microglia in three different stages of activation was performed: In the control retina apoptosis was found in all layers, which is expected since the explantation process itself cause a stress response in the tissue . The numbers of apoptotic cells were quantified for each nuclear layer in the retina, i. AgNO 3 - treated groups displayed abundant numbers of Avidin-positive cells. Published online Aug Ex vivo and in vitro cultures of various organs, including neural tissue from the brain and the eye, have proven useful as intermediate complexity test systems in order to assess the potential use of candidate substances for therapy as well as for early signs of intolerable side-effects  — .
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